Apologia Sophia: “Apologetics Wisdom” 3—Preparation

BY KENNETH R. SAMPLES – MARCH 12, 2019

Are you prepared for apologetic engagement? In part 3 (of six) in this series, I’ll offer three practical suggestions to help prepare you for potentially life-changing interactions with nonbelievers. As noted in parts 1 and 2, the term Apologia Sophia (Gk: ἀπολογία σοφία) transliterates the Greek word endings and roughly translates to “apologetics wisdom.” These three points will help provide you with such wisdom, whether you’re a professional or lay Christian apologist.

1. Develop thinking, speaking, and writing skills.

Apologists need to think, speak, and write with clarity and cogency. The study of logic is the greatest way to develop superior critical thinking skills. Rhetoric (the study of speech and debate) can serve to sharpen your oratory abilities. Writing skills can be enhanced by mastering the basics of English grammar (for English speakers) and by seeking to develop an imaginative storytelling style. Apologists should not underestimate the critical importance of developing their thinking, speaking, and writing skills.

2. Learn to think worldviewishly.

The word “worldview” refers to the cluster of beliefs a person holds about the most significant concepts of life—such as God, the cosmos, knowledge, values, humanity, and history. A worldview is, therefore, one’s big-picture view of reality. You can improve worldview thinking by learning the basic philosophical categories of thought and how to evaluate worldview truth claims. An ability to compare and contrast what one worldview affirms with another will prove to be valuable.

3. Develop a specific area of apologetic specialization.

In addition to studying general Christian apologetics, you would do well to choose an area that is centrally involved in the apologetic enterprise, then develop a specialized understanding of the field. Such fields might include theology, philosophy, ethics, psychology, history, literature, religion, science, and mathematics. By developing a specialization, you will acquire relevant expertise for apologetic research and outreach.

The Book of Acts describes the apostle Paul’s apologetics practice:

As was his custom, Paul went into the synagogue, and on three Sabbath days he reasoned with them from the Scriptures, explaining and proving that the Messiah had to suffer and rise from the dead. “This Jesus I am proclaiming to you is the Messiah,” he said. Some of the Jews were persuaded and joined Paul and Silas, as did a large number of God-fearing Greeks and quite a few prominent women.

–Acts 17:2–4

If I were to start my training for a career in Christian apologetics all over again, I would rigorously pursue the three areas discussed above. The Lord by his grace uses our apologetics reasoning to draw people to faith in Christ. And God will honor your prudent preparation for such service.

Reflections: Your Turn

How has God used your preparation for his kingdom-building purposes? Which of the three suggestions above do you deem most important? Why? Visit Reflections on WordPress to comment with your response.

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About Reasons to Believe

RTB’s mission is to spread the Christian Gospel by demonstrating that sound reason and scientific research—including the very latest discoveries—consistently support, rather than erode, confidence in the truth of the Bible and faith in the personal, transcendent God revealed in both Scripture and nature. Learn More »

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Apologia Sophia: “Apologetics Wisdom” 1—Attitude

BY KENNETH R. SAMPLES – FEBRUARY 26, 2019

Apologia sophia (Gk: ἀπολογία σοφία) transliterates the Greek word endings and roughly translates to “apologetics wisdom.” Since I am an adjunct professor for Biola University’s MA program in apologetics, I teach and interact with many students who are preparing for a career in apologetics or are studying to deepen their knowledge and sharpen their skills in the field. Thus, as a teacher and a full-time scholar at RTB, I hope the following series gives practical advice—and even some genuine wisdom—when it comes to the apologetics enterprise (the art and science of giving a reasoned defense of Christianity; see 1 Peter 3:15).

Let me begin part 1 (of 6) by enumerating three points designed to help both those who are interested in and those who already engage in Christian apologetics. These points apply equally to professional and lay Christian apologists, and the points relate more to the attitudeand focus of the apologist than to specific content of arguments. Future parts in this series will address other topics.

1. Contend without being contentious.

Be careful that you don’t confuse contending for the faith (Jude 3) with being a contentious person. Apologists need to be vigilantly critical of faulty ideas—especially as they relate to Christianity—but they also need to be gracious toward people. If you believe in God’s grace toward you then you should also endeavor to treat others graciously. Nobody’s perfect, and sometimes apologetics encounters can be intense, but beware of becoming apologetically jaded and giving in to a contentious attitude.

2. Value truth above winning.

Apologists are often called to present, explain, and defend Christian truth claims to various non-Christians. In doing so, strive to esteem truth above victory in an argument. Rhetoric and polemics have their appropriate place in apologetics but only when they serve truth as a sacred reality. Prize and handle truth as if it is sacred, because it is. The triune God is Truth with a capital T. In fact, Jesus Christ specifically called himself the Truth (John 14:6). An honest person who handles all truth, big and small, with care and precision, carries unique credibility. Thus as an apologist, be a truth seeker above all.

3. Don’t compete with or envy other apologists.

The enterprise of apologetics can sometimes bring out one’s competitive nature. And some apologists have made significant contributions in defending the faith. But guard against competing with or envying other Christian apologists. Instead, come to view them as valued allies. Learn from them as brothers and sisters in the Lord. Recognize that all Christians are on the same team and God has given each apologist their own distinct personality and gifts. Encourage, support, and pray for other apologists. Apologetics can be a critical tool in the process of persuading people of ultimate truth and reality and, as such, it involves a type of spiritual warfare. So ask God’s Spirit for protection over you and your fellow apologists.

Here’s the apostle Peter’s scriptural mandate for the critical apologetics enterprise:

But in your hearts revere Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect, keeping a clear conscience, so that those who speak maliciously against your good behavior in Christ may be ashamed of their slander. For it is better, if it is God’s will, to suffer for doing good than for doing evil.

–1 Peter 3:15–17

The attitude, goals, and focus of the Christian apologist bear significantly on his or her power of persuasion.
Reflections: Your Turn
Which of the three apologetics suggestions above is the hardest for you to incorporate? Why? Visit Reflections on WordPress to comment with your response.

 

Resources

About Reasons to Believe

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Cosmic Creation Model Passes Another Test

BY HUGH ROSS – JANUARY 21, 2019

Last May I debated with Peter Atkins, Oxford University chemist and well-known atheist, on the Unbelievable? radio show and video podcast. Toward the end of the debate, moderator Justin Brierley asked each of us to name a possible scientific discovery that, if proven true beyond any reasonable doubt, would cause us to abandon the philosophical worldview we were advocating. You can watch the debate here.

Atkins was not very forthcoming, to say the least. One of the possible scientific discoveries I named that would cause me to abandon my Christian faith would be scientific proof that there was no cosmic creation event. I explained that if future scientific discoveries were to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the universe did not have a beginning and, therefore, that there was no cosmic Beginner, such discoveries would be catastrophic to the Christian faith and the clear teachings of the Bible.

The Bible says much more about the universe than that it had a beginning. Thousands of years before any astronomer speculated or articulated what we now know as the big bang theory of the universe, six different Bible authors in multiple books of the Bible declared the four fundamental features of the big bang creation model:

  1. The universe has a beginning that includes the beginning of space and time.
  2. The universe has expanded and continues to expand from its space-time beginning.
  3. The laws of physics that govern the universe have never changed.
  4. One of the laws governing the universe is a pervasive law of decay.

Any system that expands under a pervasive law of decay gets colder and colder as it ages. Hence, the Bible really is a big bang book.

Years ago, at the encouragement and with the assistance of theologian John Rea, I wrote an article entitled “Big Bang—the Bible Taught It First.”1 The article is available online here and (with minor edits) appears in my books The Creator and the Cosmos2 and A Matter of Days.3

In science, the success of any theory, model, or hypothesis is measured by how well the predicted features of the theory, model, or hypothesis are verified by advancing experiments and observations. By this measure, the biblically predicted big bang creation model has fared phenomenally well. In the four editions of The Creator and the Cosmos I have documented over a 25-year period how the more astronomers learn about the universe, the more observational evidence they accumulate for the veracity of the big bang creation model. Furthermore, the more astronomers learn about the universe, the more detailed a big bang model they have been able to build.

Today, astronomers possess a very detailed big bang creation model. In the astronomical literature it is referred to as the ΛCDM model. The ΛCDM big bang model refers to a universe with a big bang beginning where dark energy, Λ, is the dominant component of the universe, and cold dark matter (weakly interacting particles moving at low velocities relative to the velocity of light), CDM, is the second most predominant component.

A major prediction of the ΛCDM big bang model is that “hierarchical evolution occurs on all mass scales.”4 In layman’s language, this means that large galaxies will have smaller satellite galaxies and that the larger satellite galaxies will have still smaller satellite galaxies. The ΛCDM model also predicts the number and the sizes of satellite galaxies each galaxy of a given mass should possess.

A decade ago, many astronomers expressed doubts about the ΛCDM model because they were not seeing the number of dwarf satellite galaxies for the Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxies that the ΛCDM model predicted. It turned out that the majority of dwarf satellite galaxies were very diffuse and, hence, extremely difficult to detect. Only recently have astronomers developed the telescope power to find the full number of dwarf satellite galaxies for the Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxies predicted by the ΛCDM model. I wrote about the discoveries of these “missing” dwarf satellite galaxies here,5 here,6 here,7 and here.8 The biggest challenge, finding the Andromeda Galaxy’s missing dwarf galaxies, has been largely accomplished by the PAndAS Project.9

Now, for the first time, astronomers have found satellite galaxies of satellite galaxies. The Local Group is the small cluster of galaxies of which the Milky Way Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy are the two largest members (see figure 1). The largest satellite galaxies in the Local Group are the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (see the featured image). Both are satellite galaxies of the Milky Way Galaxy. Figure 2 shows a to-scale map that I constructed of the Milky Way/Magellanic Clouds system.

blog__inline--cosmic-creation-model-passes-another-test-1

Figure 1: Map of the Larger Local Group Galaxies. The Andromeda Galaxy and its two largest satellite galaxies, M32 and NGC 205, are to the upper left. The Triangulum Galaxy is to the mid left. The Milky Way Galaxy and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are to the bottom right. The spatial separation between the Andromeda and Milky Way Galaxies is nearly double that shown in the above map. Credit for the galaxy images: NASA/ESO. Credit for the reconstructed map of the Milky Way Galaxy: NASA/JPL-Caltech (R. Hurt). Credit for the map of the Local Group: Hugh Ross

blog__inline--cosmic-creation-model-passes-another-test-2

Figure 2: The Milky Way Galaxy/Magellanic Clouds System. Credit for the Magellanic Clouds images: European Southern Observatory. Credit for the reconstructed map of the Milky Way Galaxy: NASA/JPL-Caltech (R. Hurt). Credit for the map of the Milky Way Galaxy/Magellanic Clouds system: Hugh Ross

A team of astronomers from Canada, Spain, and the United States, led by Nitya Kallivayalil, presented proper motion measurements for 13 of the 32 newly discovered dwarf galaxies in the Gaia Data Release 2.10 A different group of astronomers had performed radial velocitymeasurements for all 13 of these dwarf galaxies. Therefore, for all 13 galaxies, Kallivayalil’s team knew the motions of these galaxies in all three spatial dimensions.

With these measured 3D motions of the 13 dwarf galaxies, Kallivayalil’s team was able to establish that 4 of the galaxies, Hor1, Car2, Car3, and Hyi1, were satellite galaxies of the Magellanic Clouds. Kallivayalil’s team also determined that two other dwarf galaxies, Hya2 and Dra2, were probable satellite galaxies of the Magellanic Clouds. Thus, another important prediction of the ΛCDM big bang creation model has now been confirmed: satellite galaxies of large galaxies themselves possess satellite galaxies.

The discovery by the five Korean astronomers and the implications of their discovery yield yet one more example of how the more we learn about the universe the more evidence and confidence we gain for what the Bible has taught about the origin and history of the universe and for One responsible for that origin and history.

featured image: The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds
The Large Magellanic Cloud to the upper right is the largest satellite galaxy in the Local Group. The Small Magellanic Cloud to the left is the second largest satellite galaxy in the Local Group. The bright spot to the left of the Small Magellanic Cloud is 47 Tucanae, a foreground globular cluster that is part of the Milky Way Galaxy.
credit: European Southern Observatory

Endnotes
  1. Hugh Ross and John Rea, “Big Bang—the Bible Taught It First!” Facts for Faith, July 1, 2000, reasons.org/explore/publications/facts-for-faith/read/facts-for-faith/2000/07/01/big-bang-the-bible-taught-it-first!
  2. Hugh Ross, The Creator and the Cosmos, 4th ed. (Covina, CA: RTB Press, 2017), 25–31.
  3. Hugh Ross, A Matter of Days, 2nd ed. (Covina, CA: RTB Press, 2015), 135–44.
  4. Nitya Kallivayalil et al., “The Missing Satellites of the Magellanic Clouds? Gaia Proper Motions of the Recently Discovered Ultra-Faint Galaxies,” Astrophysical Journal 867 (November 1, 2018): id. 19, page 1, doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aadfee.
  5. Hugh Ross, “Dwarf Galaxies Test Big Bang,” Today’s New Reason to Believe (blog), Reasons to Believe, December 8, 2008, reasons.org/explore/blogs/todays-new-reason-to-believe/read/tnrtb/2008/12/08/dwarf-galaxies-test-big-bang.
  6. Hugh Ross, “Another Dwarf Galaxy Test of Big Bang Cosmology,” Today’s New Reason to Believe(blog), Reasons to Believe, April 27, 2009, reasons.org/explore/blogs/todays-new-reason-to-believe/read/tnrtb/2009/04/27/another-dwarf-galaxy-test-of-big-bang-cosmology.
  7. Hugh Ross, “The Least Luminous Known Galaxy,” Today’s New Reason to Believe (blog), Reasons to Believe, July 6, 2009, reasons.org/explore/blogs/todays-new-reason-to-believe/read/tnrtb/2009/07/06/the-least-luminous-known-galaxy.
  8. Hugh Ross, “The Darkest Galaxy,” Today’s New Reason to Believe (blog), Reasons to Believe, August 22, 2011, reasons.org/explore/blogs/todays-new-reason-to-believe/read/tnrtb/2011/08/22/the-darkest-galaxy.
  9. Nicolas F. Martin et al., “The PAndAS View of the Andromeda Satellite System. II. Detailed Properties of 23 M31 Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies,” Astrophysical Journal 833 (December 15, 2016): id. 167, doi:10.3847/1538-4357/833/2/167; Nicolas F. Martin et al., “A Rogues’ Gallery of Andromeda’s Dwarf Galaxies. I. A Predominance of Red Horizontal Branches,” Astrophysical Journal 850 (November 20, 2017): id. 16, doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa901a.
  10. Kallivayalil et al., “Missing Satellites of the Magellanic Clouds?.”

About Reasons to Believe

RTB’s mission is to spread the Christian Gospel by demonstrating that sound reason and scientific research—including the very latest discoveries—consistently support, rather than erode, confidence in the truth of the Bible and faith in the personal, transcendent God revealed in both Scripture and nature. Learn More »

Support Reasons to Believe

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The Perils of Space Travel

BY JEFF ZWEERINK – FEBRUARY 15, 2019

If only space travel were as easy as depicted in Star Wars or Star Trek! Traveling a few thousand times the speed of light onboard the Enterprise or a hundred times faster by jumping to lightspeed enables these fictional ships to traverse stellar distances in fractions of a day. Unfortunately, the real world poses much greater constraints. Even cruising at one-tenth the speed of light (well beyond our current or imaginary technology), the trip to star system Alpha Centauri, our nearest neighbor, would take nearly 45 years. Some of the latest research reveals the damage even a few months in space causes to the human body. By contrast, Earth’s environment seems ideally suited for humans.

Perhaps the most well-known peril of long periods of time in space relates to bone density loss and kidney stones. NASA implements a strenuous exercise regimen, supplemented by medication, to combat these risks. Not surprisingly, muscle degeneration also occurs in the weightless environment of space. According to a recent study of zero gravity on the muscles supporting the back, staying aboard the International Space Station for 6 months resulted in a 5–10% decrease in muscle mass. Back on Earth, the astronauts’ muscle mass returned to normal values within a year or so. However, muscle density also decreased by similar amounts while in space. For some muscles, the effects of this density decrease were measurable 2–4 years later.1

Perhaps exercise and nutrient intake can counteract the effects of long-term space travel, but research also reveals human immune system problems. Another team of scientistsinvestigated the levels of “natural killer cells” (NK cells) for astronauts spending six months or more in space. These NK cells are white blood cells that kill cancerous cells and prevent viral cells within the body from reactivating. The team drew blood samples before launch, during flight, and after return for the astronauts, as well as a control sample of people who remained on Earth. The study showed that the level of NK cells on the long spaceflights decreased by 50%.2 If such an effect grows with flight duration, the consequences would result in most (if not all) space travelers developing cancer or succumbing to previous viral infections that immune systems on Earth naturally keep in check. Such problems become more severe considering that long-duration spaceflights induce a condition called HALS—hydrocephalus associated with long-duration spaceflight. The buildup of fluid in the brain causes increased brain pressure in the part of the brain responsible for body movement and higher executive function.

These problems result from spaceflights near Earth. Longer trips, like going to Mars, bring another, more severe problem. Flights to Mars require more than six months outside the protective confines of Earth’s magnetic field. Consequently, space travelers are exposed to cosmic radiation that the magnetic field deflects from Earth’s inhabitants. Mice provide a good proxy for the human physiology, so a team of researchers exposed mice to radiation doses similar to those encountered on a trip to Mars. The study showed that cosmic radiation dosage severely damaged the intestinal lining of the mice. Specifically, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a 3- to 5-day self-renewing mechanism that keeps the top layers of the tract healthy. The cosmic rays disrupted this renewing mechanism, which dramatically affects nutrient absorption and leads to cancerous growth.3 Additionally, signs of the damage remain at least one year after the radiation exposure ends.

Taken together, these studies demonstrate two points. First, space travel may capture the human imagination, but the physiological toll of traveling anywhere beyond the Moon may destroy any hope to journey beyond our home planet. Second, the environment of space exposes humanity to seriously detrimental effects. However, our well-designed Earth provides an incredible environment for humanity (and an abundant array of diverse life) to not only survive but to truly thrive.

Endnotes
  1. Katelyn Burkhart, Brett Allaire, and Mary Bouxsein, “Negative Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Paraspinal Muscle Morphology,” Spine, published ahead of print (December 8, 2018), doi:10.1097/BRS.0000000000002959.
  2. Austin B. Bigley et al., “NK-Cell Function Is Impaired during Long-duration Spaceflight,” Journal of Applied Physiology (November 1, 2018), doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00761.2018.
  3. Santosh Kumar et al., “Space Radiation Triggers Persistent Stress Response, Increases Senescent Signaling, and Decreases Cell Migration in Mouse Intestine,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115, no. 42 (October 16, 2018): E9832-41, doi:10.1073/pnas.1807522115.

About Reasons to Believe

RTB’s mission is to spread the Christian Gospel by demonstrating that sound reason and scientific research—including the very latest discoveries—consistently support, rather than erode, confidence in the truth of the Bible and faith in the personal, transcendent God revealed in both Scripture and nature. Learn More »

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Son Of God, Jesus, Has Always Existed

By Will Myers

The Son of God has always existed in the mind of God. Most all Disciplines of the bible concur that the Son was not created but was in the mind of God.  The Son is given eternal life upon obeying his Father God, by materializing in this world and being obedient to shedding his blood on the cross in order for us to be saved by paying the ransom price for our sins which began with Adam and Eve who forfeited their external life.

The God Equation, UspaceVspace=Q, is the form of Uspace being God’s perfect righteousness in all things even each soul; Vspace being the nexuses in the universe that which is observed, and Q is the thing that “IS” (principles, laws, tangibles, and potentials). UspaceVspace is creating Q. God created the universe through His Son who is God’s Word. The universe works to mold (Uspace) each soul into being like His Son; for we know that Jesus grew and waxed strong in the Spirit. This is the conjunction of the perfect book of life and the perfect book of nature.

Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste. (Zion meaning “in the essence of things”)
>

ROMANS 8:29; “ For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren.”

ROMANS 1:20; “For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:”

For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

>

And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hidden in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ:

>
And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.
>
We can comfortably say that if God created righteousness than it is perfect (Uspace).  Mankind has always felt the calling unto a One God by the exposure to Uspace. The generation (Operator) UspaceVspace is displaying God’s glorious handicraft. His Spirit of love is in us and He will never forsake anyone. There is no divide between God, our Creator, and each soul.
(UspaceVspace, WGM)
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Love Is in the Air and It Smells Like Intelligent Design

Intelligent Design and Biblical Scripture

BY FAZALE RANA

     – FEBRUARY 14, 2018

Being the hopeless romantic, I worked hard last year to come up with just the right thing to say to my wife on Valentine’s Day. I decided to let my lovely bride know that I really liked her signaling traits. Sadly, that didn’t go over so well.

This year, I think I am going to tell my wife that I like the way she smells.

I don’t know how Amy will receive my romantic overture, but I do know that scientific research explains the preference I have for my wife’s odors—it reflects the composition of a key component of her immune system, specifically her major histocompatibility complex. And, my wife’s immune system really turns me on.

Odor Preference and Immune System Composition

Why am I so attracted to my wife’s scents, and hence, the composition of her immune system? Several studies…

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Scientific Discovery and God: Planet Earth, Part 3

BY KENNETH R. SAMPLES – FEBRUARY 5, 2019

In the first two parts of this series (see here and here) I discussed how secular scientists, given their naturalistic worldview, expected to discover that we live in an eternal—and therefore uncaused—universe, as well as in an ordinary solar system. Yet on both scores scientists were surprised by what scientific advances revealed. In both cases, the great contrast for scientists who hold a purely secular worldview is that the universe’s and solar system’s features seem to best comport with the expectations of theism over atheistic naturalism.

In this article I will briefly discuss how the specific expectations of secular scientists concerning Earth’s characteristics were also very different from what science has shown. Again, the results follow a similar pattern of favoring the expectations of one worldview over another.

The Rare Earth Hypothesis

The consensus of secular scientists a half-century ago was that the earth is not a special planet, but rather a mediocre one, with no rare or unique significance. Many scientists thought that since Earth is not at the center of the universe, then it is merely ordinary. For example, in the 1970s and 1980s scientists like Carl Sagan and Frank Drake described the Earth as a typical rocky planet in a nonexceptional place in an ordinary galaxy.

However, this initial expectation has been challenged. The rare Earth hypothesis holds that the earth is distinct as a planet and may even be special. University of Washington scientists Peter D. Ward and Donald Brownlee have led the way in representing this perspective in their book Rare Earth: Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe.

They argue that the universe is fundamentally hostile to complex life and that microbial life may be common. However, the evolution of biological complexity from simple life on Earth requires an exceptionally unlikely set of circumstances; therefore, complex life is probably extremely rare.

“[A]mong the essential criteria for life are a terrestrial planet with plate tectonics and oxygen, a large moon, magnetic field, a gas giant like Jupiter for protection and an orbit in the habitable zone of the right kind of star.”1

Not all scientists accept this rare Earth view, and some have criticized the hypothesis (seehere). Yet scientists who embrace a purely naturalistic worldview expected Earth to prove to be commonplace, but instead they discovered viable reasons to think otherwise.

The rare Earth hypothesis seems to comport well with a theistic, even biblical, worldview, but appears unexpected and out of place from an atheistic, naturalistic perspective. So what would Earth look like if biblical theism were true? Evidently much like it appears right now.

In part four I’ll discuss the topic of human exceptionalism and what scientists anticipated and have discovered about it.

Reflections: Your Turn

For Christians, what does living on a planet that seems specially designed to allow for human life invoke? Visit Reflections on WordPress to comment with your response.

Resources

  • For more on Earth’s unique features, see Hugh Ross, The Creator and the Cosmos, 4th ed. (Covina, CA: RTB Press, 2018), 199–222.
  • For more on the argument to God from fine-tuning, see Kenneth Richard Samples, 7 Truths That Changed the World (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2012), 113–15.
Endnotes
  1. Wikipedia, s.v. “Rare Earth (book),” last modified December 8, 2018, 12:34 (UTC), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare_Earth_(book).

About Reasons to Believe

RTB’s mission is to spread the Christian Gospel by demonstrating that sound reason and scientific research—including the very latest discoveries—consistently support, rather than erode, confidence in the truth of the Bible and faith in the personal, transcendent God revealed in both Scripture and nature. Learn More »

Support Reasons to Believe

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  • P (855) 732-7667
  • P (626) 335-1480
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